class bayespy.nodes.SwitchingGaussianMarkovChain(mu, Lambda, B, Z, nu, n=None, **kwargs)[source]

Node for Gaussian Markov chain random variables with switching dynamics.

The node models a sequence of Gaussian variables :math:`mathbf{x}_0,ldots,mathbf{x}_{N-1}$ with linear Markovian dynamics. The dynamics may change in time, which is obtained by having a set of matrices and at each time selecting one of them as the state dynamics matrix. The graphical model can be presented as:

% tikzlibrary.code.tex
% Copyright 2010-2011 by Laura Dietz
% Copyright 2012 by Jaakko Luttinen
% This file may be distributed and/or modified
% 1. under the LaTeX Project Public License and/or
% 2. under the GNU General Public License.
% See the files LICENSE_LPPL and LICENSE_GPL for more details.

% Load other libraries

% Latent node
\tikzstyle{latent} = [circle,fill=white,draw=black,inner sep=1pt,
minimum size=20pt, font=\fontsize{10}{10}\selectfont, node distance=1]
% Observed node
\tikzstyle{obs} = [latent,fill=gray!25]
% Constant node
\tikzstyle{const} = [rectangle, inner sep=0pt, node distance=1]
% Factor node
\tikzstyle{factor} = [rectangle, fill=black,minimum size=5pt, inner
sep=0pt, node distance=0.4]
% Deterministic node
\tikzstyle{det} = [latent, diamond]

% Plate node
\tikzstyle{plate} = [draw, rectangle, rounded corners, fit=#1]
% Invisible wrapper node
\tikzstyle{wrap} = [inner sep=0pt, fit=#1]
% Gate
\tikzstyle{gate} = [draw, rectangle, dashed, fit=#1]

% Caption node
\tikzstyle{caption} = [font=\footnotesize, node distance=0] %
\tikzstyle{plate caption} = [caption, node distance=0, inner sep=0pt,
below left=5pt and 0pt of #1.south east] %
\tikzstyle{factor caption} = [caption] %
\tikzstyle{every label} += [caption] %

\tikzset{>={triangle 45}}


% \factoredge [options] {inputs} {factors} {outputs}
\newcommand{\factoredge}[4][]{ %
  % Connect all nodes #2 to all nodes #4 via all factors #3.
  \foreach \f in {#3} { %
    \foreach \x in {#2} { %
      \draw[-,#1] (\x) edge[-] (\f) ; %
    } ;
    \foreach \y in {#4} { %
      \draw[->,#1] (\f) -- (\y) ; %
    } ;
  } ;

% \edge [options] {inputs} {outputs}
\newcommand{\edge}[3][]{ %
  % Connect all nodes #2 to all nodes #3.
  \foreach \x in {#2} { %
    \foreach \y in {#3} { %
      \draw[->,#1] (\x) -- (\y) ;%
    } ;
  } ;

% \factor [options] {name} {caption} {inputs} {outputs}
\newcommand{\factor}[5][]{ %
  % Draw the factor node. Use alias to allow empty names.
  \node[factor, label={[name=#2-caption]#3}, name=#2, #1,
  alias=#2-alias] {} ; %
  % Connect all inputs to outputs via this factor
  \factoredge {#4} {#2-alias} {#5} ; %

% \plate [options] {name} {fitlist} {caption}
\newcommand{\plate}[4][]{ %
  \node[wrap=#3] (#2-wrap) {}; %
  \node[plate caption=#2-wrap] (#2-caption) {#4}; %
  \node[plate=(#2-wrap)(#2-caption), #1] (#2) {}; %

% \gate [options] {name} {fitlist} {inputs}
\newcommand{\gate}[4][]{ %
  \node[gate=#3, name=#2, #1, alias=#2-alias] {}; %
  \foreach \x in {#4} { %
    \draw [-*,thick] (\x) -- (#2-alias); %
  } ;%

% \vgate {name} {fitlist-left} {caption-left} {fitlist-right}
% {caption-right} {inputs}
\newcommand{\vgate}[6]{ %
  % Wrap the left and right parts
  \node[wrap=#2] (#1-left) {}; %
  \node[wrap=#4] (#1-right) {}; %
  % Draw the gate
  \node[gate=(#1-left)(#1-right)] (#1) {}; %
  % Add captions
  \node[caption, below left=of #1.north ] (#1-left-caption)
  {#3}; %
  \node[caption, below right=of #1.north ] (#1-right-caption)
  {#5}; %
  % Draw middle separation
  \draw [-, dashed] (#1.north) -- (#1.south); %
  % Draw inputs
  \foreach \x in {#6} { %
    \draw [-*,thick] (\x) -- (#1); %
  } ;%

% \hgate {name} {fitlist-top} {caption-top} {fitlist-bottom}
% {caption-bottom} {inputs}
\newcommand{\hgate}[6]{ %
  % Wrap the left and right parts
  \node[wrap=#2] (#1-top) {}; %
  \node[wrap=#4] (#1-bottom) {}; %
  % Draw the gate
  \node[gate=(#1-top)(#1-bottom)] (#1) {}; %
  % Add captions
  \node[caption, above right=of #1.west ] (#1-top-caption)
  {#3}; %
  \node[caption, below right=of #1.west ] (#1-bottom-caption)
  {#5}; %
  % Draw middle separation
  \draw [-, dashed] (#1.west) -- (#1.east); %
  % Draw inputs
  \foreach \x in {#6} { %
    \draw [-*,thick] (\x) -- (#1); %
  } ;%

\tikzstyle{latent} += [minimum size=40pt];

\node[latent] (x0) {$\mathbf{x}_0$};
\node[latent, right=of x0] (x1) {$\mathbf{x}_1$};
\node[right=of x1] (dots) {$\cdots$};
\node[latent, right=of dots] (xn) {$\mathbf{x}_{N-1}$};
\edge {x0}{x1};
\edge {x1}{dots};
\edge {dots}{xn};

\node[latent, above left=1 and 0.1 of x0] (mu) {$\boldsymbol{\mu}$};
\node[latent, above right=1 and 0.1 of x0] (Lambda) {$\mathbf{\Lambda}$};
\node[det, below=of x1] (A0) {$\mathbf{A}_0$};
\node[right=of A0] (Adots) {$\cdots$};
\node[det, right=of Adots] (An) {$\mathbf{A}_{N-2}$};
\node[latent, above=of dots] (nu) {$\boldsymbol{\nu}$};
\edge {mu,Lambda} {x0};
\edge {nu} {x1,dots,xn};
\edge {A0} {x1};
\edge {Adots} {dots};
\edge {An} {xn};

\node[latent, below=of A0] (z0) {$z_0$};
\node[right=of z0] (zdots) {$\cdots$};
\node[latent, right=of zdots] (zn) {$z_{N-2}$};
\node[latent, left=of z0] (B) {$\mathbf{B}_k$};
\edge {B} {A0, Adots, An};
\edge {z0} {A0};
\edge {zdots} {Adots};
\edge {zn} {An};

\plate {K} {(B)} {$k=0,\ldots,K-1$};

where \boldsymbol{\mu} and \mathbf{\Lambda} are the mean and the precision matrix of the initial state, \boldsymbol{\nu} is the precision of the innovation noise, and \mathbf{A}_n are the state dynamics matrix obtained by selecting one of the matrices \{\mathbf{B}_k\}^{K-1}_{k=0} at each time. The selections are provided by z_n\in\{0,\ldots,K-1\}. The probability distribution is

p(\mathbf{x}_0, \ldots, \mathbf{x}_{N-1}) = p(\mathbf{x}_0)
\prod^{N-1}_{n=1} p(\mathbf{x}_n | \mathbf{x}_{n-1})


p(\mathbf{x}_0) &= \mathcal{N}(\mathbf{x}_0 | \boldsymbol{\mu}, \mathbf{\Lambda})
p(\mathbf{x}_n|\mathbf{x}_{n-1}) &= \mathcal{N}(\mathbf{x}_n |
\mathbf{A}_{n-1}\mathbf{x}_{n-1}, \mathrm{diag}(\boldsymbol{\nu})),
\quad \text{for } n=1,\ldots,N-1,
\mathbf{A}_n &= \mathbf{B}_{z_n}, \quad \text{for }

mu : Gaussian-like node or (…,D)-array

\boldsymbol{\mu}, mean of x_0, D-dimensional with plates (…)

Lambda : Wishart-like node or (…,D,D)-array

\mathbf{\Lambda}, precision matrix of x_0, D\times D -dimensional with plates (…)

B : Gaussian-like node or (…,D,D,K)-array

\{\mathbf{B}_k\}_{k=0}^{K-1}, a set of state dynamics matrix, D \times K-dimensional with plates (…,D)

Z : categorical-like node or (…,N-1)-array

\{z_0,\ldots,z_{N-2}\}, time-dependent selection, K-categorical with plates (…,N-1)

nu : gamma-like node or (…,D)-array

\boldsymbol{\nu}, diagonal elements of the precision of the innovation process, plates (…,D)

n : int, optional

N, the length of the chain. Must be given if \mathbf{Z} does not have plates over the time domain (which would not make sense).


Equivalent model block can be constructed with GaussianMarkovChain by explicitly using Gate to select the state dynamics matrix. However, that approach is not very efficient for large datasets because it does not utilize the structure of \mathbf{A}_n, thus it explicitly computes huge moment arrays.

__init__(mu, Lambda, B, Z, nu, n=None, **kwargs)[source]

Create SwitchingGaussianMarkovChain node.


__init__(mu, Lambda, B, Z, nu[, n]) Create SwitchingGaussianMarkovChain node.
delete() Delete this node and the children
get_gradient(rg) Computes gradient with respect to the natural parameters.
get_parameters() Return parameters of the VB distribution.
get_riemannian_gradient() Computes the Riemannian/natural gradient.
has_plotter() Return True if the node has a plotter
initialize_from_random() Set the variable to a random sample from the current distribution.
initialize_from_value(x, *args)
logpdf(X[, mask]) Compute the log probability density function Q(X) of this node.
lower_bound_contribution([gradient, …]) Compute E[ log p(X|parents) - log q(X) ]
move_plates(from_plate, to_plate)
observe(x, *args[, mask]) Fix moments, compute f and propagate mask.
pdf(X[, mask]) Compute the probability density function of this node.
plot([fig]) Plot the node distribution using the plotter of the node
random(*phi[, plates]) Draw a random sample from the distribution.
set_parameters(x) Set the parameters of the VB distribution.
show() Print the distribution using standard parameterization.


plates_multiplier Plate multiplier is applied to messages to parents